Summary of 24  lines 1-40
Arjuna – who has become so overcome with pity for his teacher Bhisma and his family members, positioned on the other side of the pitched battle lines – lets go of his arrows and his Ghandiva bow, and he sinks to the floor of his chariot with a dejected and anguishing heart.
Krishna responds at first with a direct exhortation to ‘man up’, to get up and fight – to rid himself of his cowardice and press on. This initial exhortation fails. Arjuna has reason to resist, and he stands by it, and tells his trusted friend (who also turns out to be a god) that he can see no clear way forward. Either choice – to kill or not to kill – appears to him lead to certain disaster. (Lines 5-10)
Krishna, with a ‘hint of laughter’, takes a different approach and responds to Arjuna’s plight, framing it as a “sage issue”: “You sorrow over men you should not sorrow over, and yet you speak to ages issues” (line 10)
From this point, Krishna begins to developed this thought through line 40, by presenting the idea (or reality) that there is something inborn in us that never dies, is never burnt or touched, that stands constant through all the changes of coming to be and passing away. By line 30, Krishna is able to conclude that Arjuna should therefore look to his own Law without wavering:
“for there is nothing more salutary for a baron than a war that is lawful. It is an open door to heaven, happily happened upon; and blessed are the warriors, Partha, who find a war like that!”